The fact that EU workers have full access to the welfare state in the country where they are working has been a central concern.
Will these restrictions apply to Irish citizens living in Britain? Member States then had to apply this legislation to their national laws.
Member States should therefore systematically collect data on how the Directive is being applied and identify potential issues of discrimination.
Sweden's labour market structures and regulations meant that any East European workers employed in Sweden needed to be offered exactly the same wages and employment rights as Swedish workers. Like citizenship, identity is an amorphous term that can be given different meanings. Our analysis considered both how migrants contribute to the public budget, for example by paying taxes, and the costs of their use of welfare benefits and services.
Depending on the criteria used, various classifications have been proposed.