The emergence of factions is avoided insofar as the good of each citizen is, and is understood to be, equally because wholly dependent on the general will. It helped spread the ideas of the Enlightenment across Europe and beyond.
Conversely, the concept of natural rights is used by others to challenge the legitimacy of all such establishments. By the end of the 18th century most European nations harboured movements calling for political reform, inspired by radical enlightened ideals which advocated clean breaks from tyranny, monarchy and absolutism.
The general philosophical problem emerges in the Enlightenment of how to understand the source and grounding of ethical duties, and how to conceive the highest good for human beings, within a secular, broadly naturalistic context, and within the context of a transformed understanding of the natural world.
Jacob does a good job of explaining how this emphasis played out in various social and cultural sectors, but I wanted more emphasis on its contributing causal factors. Moreover, according to the principle of the argument, the stronger the evidence for an author or authors of nature, the more like us that author or authors should be taken to be.
Introduction Rationalism—as an appeal to human reason as a way of obtaining knowledge—has a philosophical history dating from antiquity. This huge fold-out page contains carefully labelled illustrations of anatomised human bodies.
In it, he argued that there were fundamental problems with both rationalist and empiricist dogma. The British government, for the most part, ignored the Enlightenment's leaders in England and Scotland, although it did give Isaac Newton a knighthood and a very lucrative government office.
Clarke also supports the empirical argument from design, the argument that concludes from the evidence of order in nature to the existence of an intelligent author of that order. Enlightenment thinkers sought to curtail the political power of organized religion, and thereby prevent another age of intolerant religious war.
For Locke, the natural rights include perfect equality and freedom, and the right to preserve life and property.